IES 2 IES 2:
Technical Competence

Introduction

Scope of this Standard
  1. International Education Standard (IES) 2 prescribes the learning outcomes for technical competence that aspiring professional accountants are required to achieve by the end of Initial Professional Development (IPD). Technical competence is the ability to apply professional knowledge to perform a role to a defined standard.
  2. IES 2 is addressed to International Federation of Accountants (IFAC) member bodies. IFAC member bodies have responsibility for ensuring that IPD meets the requirements of IES 2. In addition, IES 2 may be helpful to educational organizations, employers, regulators, government authorities, and any other stakeholders who support the learning and development of aspiring professional accountants.
  3. IES 2 specifies the competence areas and learning outcomes that describe the technical competence required of aspiring professional accountants by the end of IPD. IES 3, Initial Professional Development - Professional Skills (2019), and IES 4, Initial Professional Development - Professional Values, Ethics, and Attitudes (2021), specify competence areas and learning outcomes relevant to their areas of focus within IPD. Together, these IES specify the competence areas and learning outcomes that describe the professional competence required of aspiring professional accountants by the end of IPD.
  4. Definitions and explanations of the key terms used in the IES and the Framework for International Education Standards for Professional Accountants and Aspiring Professional Accountants (2015) are set out in the Glossary of Terms for International Education Standards (2021).
Explanatory Material
  1. An aspiring professional accountant is an individual who has commenced a professional accounting education program as part of IPD. IPD is the learning and development through which aspiring professional accountants first develop competence leading to performing a role as a professional accountant. IPD builds on general education and includes professional accounting education, practical experience, and assessment. IPD continues until aspiring professional accountants can demonstrate the professional competence required for their chosen roles in the accountancy profession.
  2. Internationally, there are significant legal and regulatory differences that determine the point of qualification (or licensing) of professional accountants. Each IFAC member body may define the appropriate relationship between the end of IPD and the point of qualification (or licensing) for its members.
  3. The inclusion of technical competence in IPD lays the base for performing a role as a professional accountant. Further development of technical competence is a focus of Continuing Professional Development (CPD), which is covered in IES 7, Continuing Professional Development (2020).
  4. Professional competence can be described and categorized in many different ways. Within the IES, professional competence is the ability to perform a role to a defined standard. Professional competence goes beyond knowledge of principles, standards, concepts, facts, and procedures; it is the integration and application of: (a) technical competence, (b) professional skills, and (c) professional values, ethics, and attitudes.
  5. A competence area is a category for which a set of related learning outcomes can be specified. Competence areas within technical competence include financial accounting and reporting, taxation, and economics; competence areas within professional skills include intellectual and organizational; and competence areas within professional values, ethics, and attitudes include ethical principles as well as professional skepticism and professional judgment.
  6. Learning outcomes establish the content and the depth of knowledge, understanding, and application required for each specified competence area. Learning outcomes can be achieved within the context of a work environment or professional accounting education program.

Effective Date

  1. IES 2 is effective from January 1, 2021.

View Currently-Effective IES

Objective

  1. The objective of IES 2 is to establish the technical competence that aspiring professional accountants need to develop and demonstrate by the end of IPD, in order to perform a role as a professional accountant.
Explanatory Material
  1. Establishing the technical competence that aspiring professional accountants need to develop and demonstrate, serves several purposes. It protects the public interest, enhances the quality of the work of professional accountants, and promotes the credibility of the accountancy profession.

Requirements and Explanatory Material

Learning Outcomes for Technical Competence
  1. IFAC member bodies shall prescribe the learning outcomes for technical competence to be achieved by aspiring professional accountants by the end of IPD. These learning outcomes shall include those listed under the competence areas below.

Expand each competence area to see the required learning outcomes.

The level of proficiency for a competence area identifies the level to be achieved by the end of IPD.

(a) Financial accounting and reporting

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Apply accounting principles to transactions and other events.
  2. Apply International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) or other relevant standards to transactions and other events.
  3. Evaluate the appropriateness of accounting policies used to prepare financial statements.
  4. Prepare financial statements, including consolidated financial statements, in accordance with IFRS or other relevant standards.
  5. Interpret financial statements and related disclosures.
  6. Interpret reports that include non-financial data and information.

(b) Management accounting

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Prepare data and information to support management decision making on topics including planning and budgeting, cost management, quality control, performance measurement, and comparative analysis.
  2. Apply techniques to support management decision making, including product costing, variance analysis, inventory management, and budgeting and forecasting.
  3. Apply appropriate quantitative techniques to analyze cost behavior and the drivers of costs.
  4. Analyze data and information to support management decision making.
  5. Evaluate the performance of products and business segments.

(c) Finance and financial management

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Compare the various sources of financing available to an organization, including bank financing, financial instruments, and bond, equity and treasury markets.
  2. Analyze an organization's cash flow and working capital requirements.
  3. Analyze the current and future financial position of an organization, using techniques including ratio analysis, trend analysis, and cash flow analysis.
  4. Evaluate the appropriateness of the components used to calculate an organization's cost of capital.
  5. Apply capital budgeting techniques in the evaluation of capital investment decisions.
  6. Explain income, asset-based, and market valuation approaches used for investment decisions, business planning, and long-term financial management.

(d) Taxation

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Explain national taxation compliance and filing requirements.
  2. Prepare direct and indirect tax calculations for individuals and organizations.
  3. Analyze the taxation issues associated with non-complex international transactions.
  4. Explain the differences between tax planning, tax avoidance, and tax evasion.

(e) Audit and assurance

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Describe the objectives and phases involved in performing an audit of financial statements.
  2. Apply International Standards on Auditing or other relevant auditing standards, laws, and regulations applicable to an audit of financial statements.
  3. Assess the risks of material misstatement in the financial statements and consider the impact on the audit strategy.
  4. Apply quantitative methods that are used in audit engagements.
  5. Identify relevant audit evidence, including contradictory evidence, to inform judgments, make decisions, and reach well-reasoned conclusions.
  6. Conclude whether sufficient and appropriate audit evidence has been obtained.
  7. Explain the key elements of assurance engagements and applicable standards that are relevant to such engagements.

(f) Governance, risk management and internal control

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Explain the principles of good governance, including the rights and responsibilities of owners, investors, and those charged with governance; and the role of stakeholders in governance, disclosure, and transparency requirements.
  2. Analyze the components of an organization's governance framework.
  3. Analyze an organization's risks and opportunities using a risk management framework.
  4. Analyze the components of internal control related to financial reporting.
  5. Analyze the adequacy of systems, processes and controls for collecting, generating, storing, accessing, using or sharing data and information.

(g) Business laws and regulations

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Explain the laws and regulations that govern the different forms of legal entities.
  2. Explain the laws and regulations applicable to the environment in which professional accountants operate.
  3. Apply data protection and privacy regulations when collecting, generating, storing, accessing, using or sharing data and information.

(h) Information and communications technologies

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Explain the impact of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) developments on an organization's environment and business model.
  2. Explain how ICT supports data analysis and decision making.
  3. Explain how ICT supports the identification, reporting and management of risk in an organization.
  4. Use ICT to analyze data and information.
  5. Use ICT to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of communication.
  6. Apply ICT to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization's systems.
  7. Analyze the adequacy of ICT processes and controls.
  8. Identify improvements to ICT processes and controls.

(i) Business and organizational environment

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Describe the environment in which an organization operates, including the primary economic, legal, regulatory, political, technological, social, and cultural aspects.
  2. Analyze aspects of the global environment that affect international trade and finance.
  3. Identify the features of globalization, including the role of multinationals and emerging markets.

(j) Economics

Level of Proficiency: Foundation

  1. Describe the fundamental principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics.
  2. Describe the effect of changes in macroeconomic indicators on business activity.
  3. Explain the different types of market structures, including perfect competition, monopolistic competition, monopoly, and oligopoly.

(k) Business strategy and management

Level of Proficiency: Intermediate

  1. Explain the various ways that organizations may be designed and structured.
  2. Explain the purpose and importance of different types of functional and operational areas within organizations.
  3. Analyze the external and internal factors that may influence the strategy of an organization.
  4. Explain the processes that may be used to develop and implement the strategy of an organization.
  5. Explain how theories of organizational behavior may be used to enhance the performance of the individual, team, and the organization.
Explanatory Material
  1. The requirement lists the learning outcomes for the technical competence to be achieved by aspiring professional accountants by the end of IPD, regardless of their intended future accounting specialization or role. These learning outcomes provide the base to enable professional accountants to develop specializations in different accounting roles, for example an audit engagement partner or taxation specialist.
  2. In the design of professional accounting education programs, the 11 competence areas listed in the requirement may not be identical to the names of prescribed courses or subjects. Also, the learning outcomes associated with one competence area may be achieved across more than one course or subject dedicated to that area. For example, the learning outcomes for financial accounting and reporting may be achieved across two or more financial accounting and reporting courses or subjects. The achievement of some learning outcomes may extend across several different courses or subjects, none of which may be devoted solely to that competence area. For example, the learning outcomes within information and communications technologies may be achieved through the integration of relevant material within courses that focus on management accounting and/or auditing and assurance. In addition, the sequence in which the competence areas are included in a professional accounting education program may differ from the sequence presented in the requirement. For example, economics is listed towards the end of the list of competence areas in the requirement, but may be covered fairly early in a professional accounting education program.
  3. There are many ways to describe and classify levels of proficiency. The description developed for purposes of the IES is provided in Appendix 1, Description of Levels of Proficiency.
  4. In the requirement, each competence area has been assigned a level of proficiency that aspiring professional accountants are expected to achieve by the end of IPD. This level of proficiency indicates the context in which the relevant learning outcomes are expected to be demonstrated. Together, the learning outcomes and the level of proficiency of the competence area provide information to help IFAC member bodies design their professional accounting education programs.
  5. In professional accounting education programs, an IFAC member body may: (a) include additional competence areas; (b) increase the level of proficiency for some competence areas; or (c) develop additional learning outcomes that are not specified in IES 2. This may occur when an IFAC member body prepares aspiring professional accountants to work within a particular industry sector (for example, the public sector) or for a particular role (for example, a management accountant or an auditor).

 

Review of Professional Accounting Education Programs
  1. IFAC member bodies shall regularly review and update professional accounting education programs that are designed to achieve the learning outcomes in IES 2.
Explanatory Material
  1. Professional accounting education programs are designed to support aspiring professional accountants to develop the appropriate professional competence by the end of IPD. Such programs may include formal education delivered through qualifications and courses offered by universities, other higher education providers, IFAC member bodies, and employers, as well as workplace training. The design of professional accounting education programs may involve substantive input from stakeholders other than IFAC member bodies.
  2. The requirement to review and update professional accounting education programs on a regular basis reflects the rapidly-changing and complex environment within which professional accountants operate. A typical review cycle may be three to five years, but it may be appropriate to undertake a more frequent review, for example to take account of changes in legislation, regulations, and standards relevant to professional accountants.

 

Assessment of Technical Competence
  1. IFAC member bodies shall establish appropriate assessment activities to assess the technical competence of aspiring professional accountants.
Explanatory Material
  1. IES 6, Initial Professional Development - Assessment of Professional Competence (2015), provides the principles that apply to the design of assessment activities used to assess the technical competence and other elements of professional competence.
  2. Various assessment activities can be used to assess the technical competence of aspiring professional accountants. Appropriate assessment activities may include: (a) written examinations consisting of questions requiring short answers, (b) case studies, (c) written essays, (d) objective testing, (e) workplace assessments, and (f) the evaluation of prior learning leading to the awarding of exemptions from aspects of IPD.

 

Tools for Implementation

Overview

IFAC

FAQs - Implementing a Learning Outcomes Approach Based on the International Education Standards

General Information; Design-related; Assessment-related; Governance-related.

IFAC

Video - The Importance of Professional Accounting Education and the Impact of IESs

What is professional accounting education and how does it differ from an accounting education program offered by a university? Why is professional accounting education important? How do the revised International Education Standards impact professional accounting education?

IFAC

Video - An Overview of the International Education Standards

What are the International Education Standards and what do they regulate? Who is the target audience for International Education Standards? What is their level of authority?

Implementation Support

IFAC

The Value of Implementing a Learning Outcomes Approach

Learning Outcomes Approach: Purpose and Benefits.

IFAC

Illustrative Example: A Mentored Workplace-Based Learning Experience Program For Aspiring Professional Accountants

The example illustrates a mentored experience program that is a work experience-based program designed to assist new entrants to the accountancy profession.

IFAC

Illustrative Example: Designing a Higher Education Program to Contribute to a Professional Accounting Qualification

The example illustrates the design principle for an “approved” Master’s program that awards partial exemption to students undertaking the professional accounting qualification.

IFAC

Guiding Principles for Implementing a Learning Outcomes Approach

Describes the guiding principles on design, assessment, and governance for a learning outcome approach.

IFAC

Illustrative Example for Designing Learning Outcomes for Curricula that Meet Public Sector Accountancy Needs

The example illustrates the design principle for a learning outcome approach in the context of public sector accountancy and assists in the preparation of related public sector curricula.

IFAC

Illustrative Example: Addressing Governance Structure in Implementing a Learning Outcomes-Based Curriculum

The example illustrates how the governance structure can influence the development and administration of a learning outcomes-based professional accountancy curriculum.

IFAC

Illustrative Example: Setting and Marking Examinations in a Professional Accounting Education Program

The example explains how to use assessment activities in examining learning objectives for a relevant competence area.

Perspectives

IFAC

New Generations in the Workplace: Educational Innovation Challenges

The Personal Perspectives series presents IAESB members’, technical advisors’, and other stakeholders’ visions on challenges affecting aspiring and current professional accountants’ learning and development.

IFAC

Making Sense of Accounting Education in a World of Change: An Accounting Firm Viewpoint

The Personal Perspectives series presents IAESB members’, technical advisors’, and other stakeholders’ visions on challenges affecting aspiring and current professional accountants’ learning and development.

Studies & Reports

External Resource | CEDEFOP

Briefing Note - Qualifications Frameworks in Europe. 2018 Developments

European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.

External Resource | UIL

Global Inventory of Regional and National Qualifications Frameworks 2019, Volume I: Thematic chapters

UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL); European Centre for Development of Vocational Training (Cedefop); European Training Foundation (ETF); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO).

Thought Leadership

IFAC

ICT Skills Development: The Digital Age and Opportunities for Accountants

Discussion of various technological advancements: Big Data, Blockchain and bitcoin, cloud computing, XBRL, mobile phone technology, artificial intelligence, drone technology, new software applications, and social media.

IFAC

ICT Skills Development: Issues for the Accounting Profession

Discussion of some of the challenges, including cybersecurity, outdated accounting systems, the changing role of the professional, and job mobility, arising from technological change.

IFAC

ICT Skills Development: Developing Countries

Discussion of the impact of ICT on developing countries in terms of the digital divide, ICT benefits, ICT policy for education, and the influence of ICT on CPD programs, training and qualification programs.

IFAC

ICT Skills Development: Education

Discussion of the impact of ICT on classroom, universities, and CPD.

Glossary

Aspiring professional accountant

An individual who has commenced a professional accounting education program as part of Initial Professional Development.

Assessment

Evaluation of professional competence developed through learning and development.

Assessment activity

Those activities designed to assess specific areas of professional competence.

Combination approach

A combination approach combines elements of input-based and output-based approaches.

Competence area

A category for which a set of related learning outcomes can be specified.

Content validity (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether an assessment activity provides adequate coverage of the particular aspect of professional competence being assessed.

Continuing professional development (CPD)

Learning and development that takes place after initial professional development, and that develops and maintains professional competence* to enable professional accountants to continue to perform their roles competently.

Cooperative education

A program of education, generally leading to a degree, which includes alternating periods (e.g., terms, semesters, trimesters) of academic study and full-time work experience. This will generally result in additional time required to complete degree requirements.

Education

Systematic process aimed at acquiring and developing knowledge, skills, and other capabilities within individuals, a process that is typically but not exclusively conducted in academic environments.

Equity (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether an assessment activity is fair and without bias.

Face validity (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether an assessment activity is perceived to measure what it is intended to measure.

Financial statements

A structured representation of historical financial information, including disclosures, intended to communicate an entity’s economic resources or obligations at a point in time or of the changes therein for a period of time in accordance with a financial reporting framework. The term “financial statements” ordinarily refers to a complete set of financial statements as determined by the requirements of the applicable financial reporting framework, but can also refer to a single financial statement. Disclosures comprise explanatory or descriptive information, set out as required, expressly permitted or otherwise allowed by the applicable financial reporting framework, on the face of a financial statement, or in the notes, or incorporated therein by cross-reference.

The financial statements subject to audit are those of the entity, prepared by management of the entity with oversight from those charged with governance.

Firm

A sole practitioner, partnership, corporation, or other entity of professional accountants.

Formal education

The non-workplace based component of an accounting education program.

Good practice

Those elements considered essential to the education and development of professional accountants and performed at a standard necessary to the achievement of professional competence.

Information and communications technologies (ICT)

Established and emerging technologies, techniques, and processes used to capture, manage, transform, or communicate data and information.

Initial professional development (IPD)

Learning and development through which aspiring professional accountants first develop competence leading to performing a role as a professional accountant.

Input measure

An input-based measure focuses on the investment made in learning and development, for example, the number of hours an individual is expected to attend a course or the subject areas covered.

Input-based approach

An approach that establishes an amount of learning activity required for professional accountants to develop and maintain professional competence.

Intellectual skills

Skills relating to the ability of a professional accountant to solve problems, to make decisions, adapt to change, and exercise professional judgment.

Interpersonal and communication skills

Skills relating to the ability of a professional accountant to work and interact effectively with others.

Learning and Development

An ongoing process of developing and maintaining professional competence throughout the career of a professional.

Learning outcome

The content and the depth of knowledge, understanding, and application required for a specified competence area.

Monitoring

Systematic process of collecting, reviewing, and confirming the evidence that demonstrates professional competence has been developed or maintained.

Organizational skills

Skills relating to the ability of a professional accountant to work effectively with or within an organization to obtain the optimal results or outcomes from the people and resources available.

Output measure

An output-based measure focuses on whether the professional accountant has developed the specified competence.

Output-based approach

An approach that requires professional accountants to demonstrate, by way of achieved learning outcomes, that they develop and maintain professional competence.

Personal skills

Skills relating to the personal attitudes and behavior of a professional accountant.

Practical experience

Workplace and other activities that are relevant to developing professional competence.

Practical experience supervisor

A professional accountant who is responsible for guiding, advising, and assisting aspiring professional accountants in acquiring sufficient practical experience.

Predictive validity (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether the content of the assessment activity relates to the particular aspect of professional competence that it is intended to assess.

Professional accountant

An individual who achieves, demonstrates, and further develops professional competence to perform a role in the accountancy profession and who is required to comply with a code of ethics as directed by a professional accountancy organization or a licensing authority.

Professional accounting education

Education and training that builds on general education, and imparts (a) professional knowledge, (b) professional skills, and (c) professional values, ethics, and attitudes.

Professional accounting education program

Programs designed to support aspiring professional accountants to develop the appropriate professional competence by the end of initial professional development. They may consist of formal education delivered through degrees and courses offered by universities, other higher education providers, IFAC member bodies, and employers, as well as workplace training.

Professional competence

The ability to perform a role to a defined standard.

Professional judgment

The application of relevant training, knowledge, and experience, within the context provided by auditing, accounting, and ethical standards, in making informed decisions about the courses of action that are appropriate in the circumstances of the audit engagement.

Professional knowledge

Those topics that make up the subject of accountancy as well as other business disciplines that, together, constitute the essential body of knowledge for professional accountants.

Professional skepticism

An attitude that includes a questioning mind, being alert to conditions which may indicate possible misstatement due to error or fraud, and a critical assessment of evidence

Professional skills

Intellectual, interpersonal and communication, personal, and organizational skills that a professional accountant integrates with technical competence and professional values, ethics, and attitudes to demonstrate professional competence.

Professional values, ethics, and attitudes

The characteristics that identify professional accountants as members of a profession. They include the principles of conduct (e.g., ethical principles) generally associated with and considered essential in defining the distinctive characteristics of, professional behavior.

Qualification

Qualification as a professional accountant means, at a given point in time, an individual is considered to have met, and continues to meet, the requirements for recognition as a professional accountant.

Reflective activity

The iterative process by which professional accountants, at all stages of their career, continue to develop their professional competence by reviewing their experiences (real or simulated) with a view to improving their future actions.

Relevant ethical requirements

Those ethical requirements to which professional accountants are subject, which ordinarily comprise the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants’ International Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants (including International Independence Standards) (IESBA Code) together with any national requirements that are more restrictive.

Reliability (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether an assessment activity consistently produces the same result, given the same set of circumstances, quality or state describing whether a measurement approach consistently produces the same result, given the same set of circumstances.

Role

A function that has a specific set of expectations attached.

Specialization

The formal recognition by a member body of a group of its members possessing distinctive competence in a field, or fields, of activity related to the work of the professional accountant.

Sufficiency (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether an assessment activity has a balance of depth and breadth, knowledge and application and, combines material from different areas applied to a range of situations and contexts.

Sufficiency (of practical experience)

Whether practical experience has a balance of depth and breadth, knowledge and application and, where appropriate, integration of material from different areas applied to a range of situations and contexts.

The breadth of practical experience is affected by factors such as: nature of role; level of proficiency, prior level of formal education, national or local laws; requirements of regulatory authorities; and the public’s expectation for professional competence.

The depth of practical experience is affected by factors such as: the variety and complexity of tasks; level of supervisory and mentoring support.

Technical competence

Technical competence is defined as the ability to apply professional knowledge to perform a role to a defined standard.

Training

Learning and development activities that complement education and practical experience. Training emphasizes practical application, and is usually conducted in the workplace or a simulated work environment.

Transparency (of assessment)

In relation to assessment, whether details of an assessment activity, such as competence areas to be assessed and timing of the activity, are disclosed publicly.

Validity

Quality or state describing whether a measurement approach measures what needs to be measured.

Verifiable evidence

Evidence that is objective, and capable of being proven and retained.

Work log

A record maintained by an individual of the nature of the assignments and tasks completed, and of the time incurred in completing those assignments and tasks. A work log might also include documentation of competences developed as a result of completing work assignments.

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Description of Levels of Proficiency

This description of levels of proficiency supports the use of learning outcomes in publications on professional accounting education such as IES 2, 3, and 4. It provides descriptions of three levels of proficiency. These descriptions, together with the learning outcomes, provide information to help IFAC member bodies design their professional accounting education programs for a variety of professional accounting roles and specializations.

Level of Proficiency Description

Foundation

Typically, learning outcomes in a competence area focus on:

  • Defining, explaining, summarizing, and interpreting the underlying principles and theories of relevant areas of technical competence to complete tasks while working under appropriate supervision;
  • Performing assigned tasks by using the appropriate professional skills;
  • Recognizing the importance of professional values, ethics, and attitudes in performing assigned tasks;
  • Solving simple problems, and referring complex tasks or problems to supervisors or those with specialized expertise; and
  • Providing information and explaining ideas in a clear manner, using oral and written communications.

Learning outcomes at the foundation level relate to work environments that are characterized by low levels of ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty.

Intermediate

Typically, learning outcomes in a competence area focus on:

  • Independently applying, comparing, and analyzing underlying principles and theories from relevant areas of technical competence to complete work assignments and make decisions;
  • Combining technical competence and professional skills to complete work assignments;
  • Applying professional values, ethics, and attitudes to work assignments; and
  • Presenting information and explaining ideas in a clear manner, using oral and written communications, to accounting and non-accounting stakeholders.

Learning outcomes at the intermediate level relate to work environments that are characterized by moderate levels of ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty.

Advanced

Typically, learning outcomes in a competence area focus on:

  • Selecting and integrating principles and theories from different areas of technical competence to manage and lead projects and work assignments, and to make recommendations appropriate to stakeholder needs;
  • Integrating technical competence and professional skills to manage and lead projects and work assignments;
  • Making judgments on appropriate courses of action drawing on professional values, ethics, and attitudes;
  • Assessing, researching, and resolving complex problems with limited supervision;
  • Anticipating, consulting appropriately, and developing solutions to complex problems and issues; and
  • Consistently presenting and explaining relevant information in a persuasive manner to a wide-range of stakeholders.

Learning outcomes at the advanced level relate to work environments that are characterized by high levels of ambiguity, complexity, and uncertainty.